Clinical Studies

Feel free to take a look at this comprehensive list of clinical studies in support of Shockwave therapy.



  1. Zuckerman JD, Rokito A. Frozen shoulder: a consensus definition. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2011 Mar. 20 (2):322-5. [Medline].
  2. Lundberg BJ. The frozen shoulder. Clinical and radiographical observations. The effect of manipulation under general anesthesia. Structure and glycosaminoglycan content of the joint capsule. Local bone metabolism. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl. 1969. 119:1-59. [Medline].
  3. Binder AI, Bulgen DY, Hazleman BL, Roberts S. Frozen shoulder: a long-term prospective study. Ann Rheum Dis. 1984 Jun. 43(3):361-4. [Medline]. [Full Text].
  4. Binder AI, Bulgen DY, Hazleman BL, Tudor J, Wraight P. Frozen shoulder: an arthrographic and radionuclear scan assessment. Ann Rheum Dis. 1984 Jun. 43(3):365-9. [Medline]. [Full Text].
  5. Lloyd-Roberts GC, French PR. Periarthritis of the shoulder. A study of the disease and its treatment. Br Med J. 1959. 1:1569-71.
  6. Tveita EK, Sandvik L, Ekeberg OM, Juel NG, Bautz-Holter E. Factor structure of the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index in patients with adhesive capsulitis. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2008 Jul 17. 9:103. [Medline]. [Full Text].
  7. Tasto JP, Elias DW. Adhesive capsulitis. Sports Med Arthrosc. 2007 Dec. 15(4):216-21. [Medline].
  8. Hand C, Clipsham K, Rees JL, Carr AJ. Long-term outcome of frozen shoulder. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2008 Mar-Apr. 17(2):231-6. [Medline]. Hand GC, Athanasou NA, Matthews T, Carr AJ. The pathology of frozen shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2007 Jul. 89(7):928-32. [Medline].
  9. Codman EA. The shoulder. Boston, Mass: Thomas Todd; 1934.
  10. Hsu JE, Anakwenze OA, Warrender WJ, Abboud JA. Current review of adhesive capsulitis. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2011 Apr. 20(3):502-14. [Medline].
  11. Zreik NH, Malik RA, Charalambous CP. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder and diabetes: a meta-analysis of prevalence. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J. 2016 May 19. 6 (1):26-34. [Medline]. [Full Text].
  12. Duplay ES. De la periarthritis scapulohumerale et des raiderus de l’epaule qui en son la consequence. Arch Gen Med. 1872. 20:513-42.
  13. Bulgen DY, Binder A, Hazleman BL, et al. Immunological studies in frozen shoulder. J Rheumatol. 1982 Nov-Dec. 9(6):893-8. [Medline].
  14. Bulgen DY, Hazleman BL, Voak D. HLA-B27 and frozen shoulder. Lancet. 1976 May 15. 1(7968):1042-4. [Medline].
  15. DePalma AF. Loss of scapulohumeral motion (frozen shoulder). Ann Surg. 1952. 135:193-204.

Plantar Fasciitis

  1. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for plantar fasciitis: randomised controlled multicentre trial.Haake M, Buch M, Schoellner C, Goebel F, Vogel M, Mueller I, Hausdorf J, Zamzow K, Schade-Brittinger C, Mueller HH. BMJ. 2003 Jul 12;327(7406):75.
  2. Radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy is safe and effective in the treatment of chronic recalcitrant plantar fasciitis: results of a confirmatory randomized placebo-controlled multicenter study.Gerdesmeyer L, Frey C, Vester J, Maier M, Weil L Jr, Weil L Sr, Russlies M, Stienstra J, Scurran B, Fedder K, Diehl P, Lohrer H, Henne M, Gollwitzer H. Am J Sports Med. 2008 Nov;36(11):2100-9. doi: 10.1177/0363546508324176. Epub 2008 Oct
  3. Clinically relevant effectiveness of focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis: a randomized, controlled multicenter study.Gollwitzer H, Saxena A, DiDomenico LA, Galli L, Bouché RT, Caminear DS, Fullem B, Vester JC, Horn C, Banke IJ, Burgkart R, Gerdesmeyer L.J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2015 May 6;97(9):701-8. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.M.01331. MID: 25948515
  4. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial evaluating the treatment of plantar fasciitis with an extracoporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) device: a North American confirmatory study.Kudo P, Dainty K, Clarfield M, Coughlin L, Lavoie P, Lebrun C. J Orthop Res. 2006 Feb;24(2):115-23. PMID: 16435344 Dastgir N. J Pak Med Assoc. 2014 Jun;64(6):675-8.
  5. [Influence of local anesthesia and energy level on the clinical outcome of extracorporeal shock wave-treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis]. Labek G, Auersperg V, Ziernhöld M, Poulios N, Böhler N. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 2005 Mar-Apr;143(2):240-6. German. PMID: 15849646
  1. Ultrasound-guided extracorporeal shock wave therapy for plantar fasciitis: a randomized controlled trial. Buchbinder R, Ptasznik R, Gordon J, Buchanan J, Prabaharan V, Forbes A. JAMA. 2002 Sep 18;288(11):1364-72. PMID: 12234230
  1. Shock wave application for chronic plantar fasciitis in running athletes. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Rompe JD, Decking J, Schoellner C, Nafe B. Am J Sports Med. 2003 Mar-Apr;31(2):268-75. PMID: 12642264
  1. [Shock wave therapy for recalcitrant plantar fasciitis with heel spur: a prospective randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study]. Abt T, Hopfenmüller W, Mellerowicz H. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 2002 Sep-Oct;140(5):548-54. German. PMID: 12226782
  2. Evaluation of low-energy extracorporeal shock-wave application for treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis. Rompe JD, Schoellner C, Nafe B. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2002 Mar;84-A(3):335-41. PMID:
  3. Effectiveness of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Without Local Anesthesia in Patients With Recalcitrant Plantar Fasciitis: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Lou J, Wang S, Liu S, Xing G. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2017 Aug;96(8):529-534. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000000666. Review. PMID: 27977431
  4. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for chronic painful heel syndrome: a prospective, double blind, randomized trial assessing the efficacy of a new electromagnetic shock wave device. Gollwitzer H, Diehl P, von Korff A, Rahlfs VW, Gerdesmeyer L. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2007 Sep-Oct;46(5):348-57.PMID: 17761319
  5. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis : a randomized multicenter trial. Haake M, König IR, Decker T, Riedel C, Buch M, Müller HH; Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Clinical Trial Group. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2002 Nov;84-A(11):1982-91.PMID:12429759
  6. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for plantar fasciitis: randomised controlled multicentre trial. Ogden JA. Br J Sports Med. 2004 Aug;38(4):382. No abstract available. PMID: 15273163
  7. Meta-analysis of high-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy in recalcitrant plantar fasciitis. Zhiyun L, Tao J, Zengwu S. Swiss Med Wkly. 2013 Jul 7;143:w13825. doi:  4414/smw.2013.13825. PMID: 23832373
  8. Intracorporeal pneumatic shock application for the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis: a randomized, double blind prospective clinical trial. Dogramaci Y, Kalaci A, Emir A, Yanat AN, Gökçe A. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2010 Apr;130(4):541-6. doi: 10.1007/s00402-009-0947- 0. Epub 2009 Aug 11.PMID: 19669773


General Orthopedic References

  1. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in musculoskeletal disorders.

Wang CJ. J Orthop Surg Res. 2012 Mar 20;7:11. doi: 10.1186/1749-799X-7-11. Review. PMID:22433113

  1. An overview of shock wave therapy in musculoskeletal disorders.Wang CJ. Chang Gung Med J. 2003 Apr;26(4):220-32. Review.PMID:12846521
  2. Clinical application of shock wave therapy in musculoskeletal disorders: part II related to myofascial and nerve apparatus.Saggini R, Di Stefano A, Saggini A, Bellomo RG. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2015 Oct-Dec;29(4):771-85. Review.PMID:26753637
  1. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF SHOCK WAVE THERAPY IN MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS: PART I.Saggini R, Di Stefano A, Saggini A, Bellomo RG. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2015 Jul-Sep;29(3):533-45. Review.PMID:26403392
  1. [Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) in chronic musculoskeletal pain].Storheim K, Gjersing L, Bølstad K, Risberg MA.Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2010 Dec 2;130(23):2360-4. doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.09.0654. Review. Norwegian. PMID:21139662
  2. Clinical application of shock wave therapy (SWT) in musculoskeletal disorders. Ioppolo F, Rompe JD, Furia JP, Cacchio A.Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2014 Apr;50(2):217-30. Epub 2014 Mar 26. Review.PMID:24667365
  1. A systematic review of shockwave therapies in soft tissue conditions: focusing on the evidence.Speed C.Br J Sports Med. 2014 Nov;48(21):1538-42. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091961. Epub 2013 Aug 5. Review.PMID:23918444
  2. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy for plantar fasciitis and other musculoskeletal conditions utilizing the Ossatron–an update.Wilner JM, Strash WW. Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2004 Jul;21(3):441-7, viii. Review.PMID:15246149
  1. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for tendinopathies. Seil R, Wilmes P, Nührenbörger C.Expert Rev Med Devices. 2006 Jul;3(4):463-70. Review.PMID: 16866643
  1. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT)–First choice treatment of fracture non-unions?Schaden W, Mittermayr R, Haffner N, Smolen D, Gerdesmeyer L, Wang CJ. Int J Surg. 2015 Dec;24(Pt B):179-83. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2015.10.003. Epub 2015 Oct 9. Review. PMID:2645416
  1. Current knowledge on evidence-based shockwave treatments for shoulder pathology.Moya D, Ramón S, Guiloff L, Gerdesmeyer L.Int J Surg. 2015 Dec;24(Pt B):171-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2015.08.079. Epub 2015 Sep 9. Review.PMID:26361863
  2. Current evidence of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in chronic Achilles tendinopathy.Gerdesmeyer L, Mittermayr R, Fuerst M, Al Muderis M, Thiele R, Saxena A, Gollwitzer H.Int J Surg. 2015 Dec;24(Pt B):154-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2015.07.718. Epub 2015 Aug 29. Review.PMID:26327530
  3. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) ameliorates healing of tibial fracture non-union unresponsive to conventional therapy.Haffner N, Antonic V, Smolen D, Slezak P, Schaden W, Mittermayr R, Stojadinovic AInjury. 2016 Jul;47(7):1506-13. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2016.04.010. Epub 2016 Apr 20.PMID:27158008
  4. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy versus placebo for the treatment of chronic proximal plantar fasciitis: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, multicenter intervention trial.Malay DS, Pressman MM, Assili A, Kline JT, York S, Buren B, Heyman ER, Borowsky P, LeMay C.J Foot Ankle Surg. 2006 Jul-Aug;45(4):196-210.PMID:16818146
  5. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy for patellar tendinopathy: a review of the literature. van Leeuwen MT, Zwerver J, van den Akker-Scheek I.Br J Sports Med. 2009 Mar;43(3):163-8. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2008.050740. Epub 2008 Aug 21. Review.PMID:18718975
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